Innovative Materials for a Sustainable Future
Innovative Materials for a Sustainable Future is the first symposium to be hosted by the College of Chemicals and Materials at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM). The symposium highlights some of the recent research efforts devoted to the design and synthesis of new materials for sustainable solutions that address pressing industrial and environmental challenges. The invited speakers are renowned scientists and strategists from academia and industry. During their talks, they will highlight the opportunities in material-related directions which could present impact on the world economy and sustainability. The College of Chemicals and Materials in its recently articulated mission is committed to promote high-impact research that addresses current and future challenges. The College delivers graduate and undergraduate vibrant academic degrees that emphasize on the sustainability and transition to the digital era through delivering fundamental knowledge and skills in chemical, material and biological related areas. Hence, this symposium is an important milestone for the College to fulfill its responsibility towards the community and the nation at large. The research model at KFUPM provides a natural environment for faculty and researchers across different disciplines to collaborate and increase the impact of their research deliverables. Such an interdisciplinary research set shall bring together the minds and efforts to enhance inner and outer modes of innovation with the ultimate objective of the design and apply new types of materials with unique features.
|Session I (Wednesday - 23 Feb. 2022)|
|I.1||18:00 - 18:15||Muhammed AlSaggaf||Opening Remarks|
|I.2||18:15 - 19:00||Omar Yaghi||Reticular Chemistry for a Sustainable Future|
|I.3||19:15 - 20:00||Yury Gogotsi||Two-Dimensional Carbides and Nitrides (MXenes) Open the Path to Future Energy Technologies|
|I.4||20:15 - 20:45||Osman Bakr||Metal Halide Perovskite Single-Crystal Solar Cells: From High Efficiency to Fundamental Insights|
|Session II (Thursday - 24 Feb. 2022)|
|II.1||14:00 - 14:45||Matthias Beller||With a Little Help from My Friends – The Importance of Ligands in Catalysis|
|II.2||15:00 - 15:30||Bashir Dabbousi||The Materials-Energy Nexus and Sustainable Business Growth|
|II.3||15:45 - 16:15||Sheikh Ashrof Ali||Synthesis and Application of Organic Materials for Sustainable Future|
|Session III (Thursday - 24 Feb. 2022)|
|III.1||18:00 - 18:45||Peidong Yang||The Chemistry of Making Semiconductor Nanowires for Artificial Photosynthesis|
|III.2||19:00 - 19:30||Youssef Belmabkhout||Quest for Materials / Processes / Systems for the Sustainable Production of Valuable Commodities|
|III.3||19:45 - 20:15||Mozahar Hossain||Catalyst Design for CO2-Mediated Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Light Alkanes to Olefins|
- Reticular Chemistry for a Sustainable Future
Metal−organic frameworks (MOFs) and covalent organic frameworks (COFs) have been the result of an emerging field of reticular chemistry. Extended structures can be imagined and prepared in the laboratory by stitching molecules through string bonds to make highly crystalline solids. This presentation will focus on the method of making these as ultrahigh crystals for clean energy, clean water, and clean air.
- Two-Dimensional Carbides and Nitrides (MXenes) Open the Path to Future Energy Technologies
Discovery of new materials provides moments of inspiration and shifts in understanding, shaping the dynamic field of materials science. Following the graphene breakthrough, many other 2D materials emerged. Although many of them remain subjects of purely academic interest, others have jumped into the limelight due to their attractive properties, which have led to practical applications. Among the latter are 2D carbides and nitrides of early transition metals known as MXenes . The family of MXenes has been expanding rapidly since the discovery of Ti3C2 in 2011. More than 30 different stoichiometric MXenes have been reported, and the structure and properties of numerous other MXenes have been predicted. Moreover, the availability of solid solutions on M and X sites, multi-element high-entropy MXenes, control of surface terminations, and the discovery of out-of-plane ordered double-M o-MXenes (e.g., Mo2TiC2), as well as in-plane ordered i-MAX phases and their i-MXenes offer a potential for producing dozens of new distinct structures. This presentation will describe the state of the art in the manufacturing of MXenes, their delamination into single-layer 2D flakes and assembly into films, fibers and 3D structures. Synthesis-structure-properties relations of MXenes will be addressed on the example of Ti3C2. Many MXenes offer high electronic conductivity combined with hydrophilic surfaces. This allow environmentally friendly and scalable manufacturing and processing of MXenes from dispersions in water, with no surfactant of binder added. The versatile chemistry of the MXene family renders their properties tunable for a large variety of energy-related applications. In particular, the applications of MXenes in electrochemical energy storage and harvesting, electrocatalytic water splitting and water purification/desalination are promising.
- Metal Halide Perovskite Single-Crystal Solar Cells: From High Efficiency to Fundamental Insights
Solar cells based on lead halide perovskites (PSCs) have recently emerged as cost-effective and energy-efficient candidates to replace or complement established photovoltaic technologies such as Silicon and GaAs. In such technologies, single crystals have led the way in terms of efficiency, performing better than their polycrystalline counterparts because of their lower defect density. However, the pace of progress of single-crystal PSCs (SC-PSCs) has been slow relative to that of polycrystalline PSCs because of challenges in crystal growth and device integration. Here, I discuss our efforts on the synthesis, surface defect-passivation, and integration of perovskite single crystals in solar cells. We discuss solvent-engineering approaches to reduce the crystallization temperature of single-crystal films (< 90 °C), yielding better quality films with longer carrier lifetimes and without surface decomposition. Furthermore, we successfully incorporated a mixed-cation single-crystal absorber layer (FA0.6MA0.4PbI3) in PSCs and show, without compromising on open circuit voltage, that the near infrared response of the devices can be expanded beyond those of polycrystalline FAPbI3 by about 50 meV, which brings it close to that of the best-performing photovoltaic semiconductor, GaAs. As a result of those strategies, we demonstrate a power conversion efficiency of up to ~23%, which sets a new record for SC-PSCs and is on par with the best polycrystalline p-i-n solar cells. However, unlike polycrystalline cells, the thickness of the absorber layer in SC-PSC can be varied by an order of magnitude without appreciably affecting the short-circuit current density. Consequently, SC-PSCs offer an ideal platform to study charge carrier transport and device performance trends in PSCs.
- With a Little Help from My Friends – The Importance of Ligands in Catalysis
The cost-effective and waste-free synthesis of materials, life science goods and all kinds of organic products require efficient chemical transformations. In this regard, development of more active and selective catalysts constitutes a key factor for achieving improved processes and providing the basis for a sustainable chemical industry. Despite continuous advancements in all areas of catalysis, still organic syntheses as well as the industrial production of most chemicals can be improved significantly in terms of sustainability and efficiency . In the talk, the development of novel palladium catalysts for carbonylation reactions will be shown . Specifically, the role of ligands in carbonylations of olefins will be addressed. By rational design novel ligands and complexes have been synthesized, which allow for unprecedented efficiency in such transformations by following the principles of cooperative catalysis . Apart from industrially relevant processes, interesting carbonylation reactions for modern organic synthesis are presented.
 Dong K, Fang X, Guelak S, Franke R, Spannenberg A, Neumann H, Jackstell R, and Beller M, NATURE COMMUNICATIONS, 2017, 8, 14117. Highly active and efficient catalysts for alkoxycarbonylation of alkenes.
 Liu J, Wei Z, Jiao H, Jackstell R, and Beller M. ACS CENTRAL SCIENCE, 2018, 4, 30-38. Toward Green Acylation of (Hetero)arenes: Palladium-Catalyzed Carbonylation of Olefins to Ketones.
 Yang J, Liu J, Neumann H, Franke R, Jackstell R, and Beller M, SCIENCE, 2019, 366, 1514-1517; Direct synthesis of adipic acid esters via palladium-catalyzed carbonylation of 1,3-dienes.
- The Materials-Energy Nexus and Sustainable Business Growth
Sustainable materials and chemicals will play an essential role in the global quest to tackle climate change. The way materials are managed throughout their lifecycle affects the environment. It is imperative to wisely control these resources to ensure sustainable development for our planet. At Saudi Aramco, we increasingly focus our R&D on sustainability technologies through a growing network of global research centers in three continents. This portfolio includes the diversification of crude oil uses in non-fuel applications through breakthrough technologies in crude-to-chemicals. We go even further in sustainable business growth by using chemicals derived from hydrocarbons to make lightweight, highly durable materials. Crucially, nonmetallic materials can function as low-carbon alternatives to steel, an industry that accounts for 8 percent of all CO2 emissions globally. Our sustainability program also includes synthesizing sustainable chemicals as low-carbon fuels. Together with Formula 1, we are raising awareness and promoting low-carbon liquid synthetic fuels, or e-fuels, in transport. This type of fuel can reduce lifecycle emissions in vehicles by up to 80% compared to conventional fuels. We believe that the shortest and most effective pathway to sustainability encompasses, without prejudice, all technologies and sectors working together towards a common goal in a synergistic manner. The materials-energy nexus is a vital interface for exploration and scientific investigation. This frontier is studied thoroughly at Saudi Aramco and shapes a significant portion of our sustainability technology strategy.
- Synthesis and Application of Organic Materials for Sustainable Future
This presentation will highlight the works carried out and currently undergoing at Chemistry Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals. Our research interests range from developing new materials for water purification, demulsification, hydraulic fracturing, aqueous two-phase systems, kinetic hydrate, scale and corrosion inhibitors to organic synthesis and polymer synthesis. The synthesis of pH-responsive polymers and resins involves cyclopolymerization protocol using specialty monomers.
- The Chemistry of Making Semiconductor Nanowires for Artificial Photosynthesis
Wires of different forms are an integral part of our human society for centuries. Electricity is being delivered through powerlines to every household; information is routinely transmitted through optical fibers and bridge-building requires the use of mechanically robust cables. In the past 25 years, scientists have fundamentally discovered a new process of making nanoscopic wires, 1000 times thinner than human hairs, enabled new generation of computing, integrated photonics, and energy and biomedical technologies. Semiconductor nanowire, a new form of semiconductor, by definition, typically has cross-sectional dimension that can be tuned from 1–100 nm, with length spanning from hundreds of nanometers to millimeters. These subwavelength structures represent a new class of semiconductor materials for investigating light generation, propagation, detection, amplification, modulation as well as energy conversion and storage. After more than two decades of research, nanowires can now be synthesized and assembled with specific compositions, heterojunctions, and architectures. This has led to a host of nanowire photonic and electronic devices. Nanowire also represents an important class of nanostructure building blocks for photovoltaics as well as direct solar-to-fuel conversion because of their high surface area, tunable bandgap, and efficient charge transport and collection. In this talk, I will present a brief history of nanowire research for the past 25 years and highlight the synthesis of nanowires using well-defined chemistry. These semiconductor nanowires, with their unique photoelectrochemistry, are then used for artificial photosynthesis, where solar energy is converted and stored in chemical bonds in a solar driven CO2 fixation process.
- Quest for Materials/Processes/Systems for the Sustainable Production of Valuable Commodities
Meeting the growing energy demands while addressing potential environmental concerns, via the sustainable use of various sources of energy, is essential to achieve economical, societal and environmental sustainability. In my talk, I will give some perspectives about the research opportunities offered to reduce drastically the consumption of energy and CO2 emissions in different sectors. Mature fossil fuel based technologies can be transformed to more energy efficient technologies via the use of multidisciplinary innovations in materials and processes. Examples of such highly sophisticated research and development studies, at the fundamental and applied levels, will be discussed and examples of highly innovative concepts will be illustrated for applications in industrial, residential and transportation sectors. In particular, my talk will focus on the discovery and use of an emerging class of solid-state materials to address challenging gas/vapor separation/purifications, CO2 capture, energy storage and water related applications. The optimal structural control at the molecular level of some model material platforms led to the discovery of advanced adsorptive concepts that are essential in the process of separation, catalysis and sensing.
- Catalyst Design for CO2-Mediated Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Light Alkanes to Olefins
Simultaneous valorization of anthropogenic CO2 and underutilized light alkanes (C2-C4) in shale gas and other feedstock into valuable platform chemicals (olefins) is a highly promising green alternative. The route involves CO2-assisted oxidative dehydrogenation of the feedstock (CO2-ODH) with zero direct H2 input, and can bring about a paradigm shift in the chemical industry towards becoming more environmentally benign. In many cases, the reduction of energy consumption is significant enough that the decrease of CO2 emission target can be achieved without CO2 capture. In this regard, the catalyst design and tuning strategies can help developing novel CO2-ODH catalysts with high activity, high olefin selectivity, and long-term stability. The catalyst formulation strategies should be considered in the light of crucial catalytic features and various nanoscale phenomena such as oxygen mobility/reducibility, charge transfer, defect creation, interfacial synergy, and balanced acidity that strongly influence and regulate overall catalytic performance. This communication will report the works in progress on CO2-ODH catalyst development at Chemical Engineering-KFUPM.
Date & TimeWednesday - February 23, 2022
6:00 PM - 8:45 PM (KSA Time GMT+3) Thursday - February 24, 2022
2:00 PM - 8:15 PM (KSA Time GMT+3)